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In an iterative dialogue with the IR system buy female viagra 100 mg online menstruation every two weeks, the answer set is then gradually narrowed down to the relevant result set buy 50 mg female viagra women's health issues after 50. However, as studies (Hearst, 1999) have shown, users are generally reluctant to give exhaustive feedback to the system. Building user profiles: Similar to the relevance feedback, the IR system builds up a user profile across multiple retrieval sessions, that is, with each document the user selects for viewing, the profile is adapted. Unfortunately, such a system does not take account of “false positives”, that is, when a user follows a link that turned out to be of no value when inspecting it closer. Additionally, such systems integrate short term user interests into accumulated context profiles, and tend to inhibit highly specialized queries which the user is currently interested in. Budzik, Hammond & Birnbaum (2001) presented a system that tries to guess the user context from open documents currently edited or browsed on the work space. In an evaluation of their system both achieved consistently better results than standard search engines are able to achieve without context. Additionally, the user might discover a context he had not in mind when formulating the query and thus find links between his intended and an Copyright © 2005, Idea Group Inc. Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of Idea Group Inc. Interactive Information Retrieval Towards Effective Knowledge Management 61 unanticipated context. Augmenting Document Sets with Context Text Categorization One way to add context to a document is by assigning a meaningful label to it (Le & Thoma, 2003). This constitutes a task of text categorization and there exist numerous algorithms that can be applied. The general approach is to select a training set of documents that are already labelled. Based on the “bag of words” representation, machine learning methods learn the association of category labels to documents. For an in depth review of statistical approaches (such as naives Bayes or decision trees) see Yang (1999). Computationally more advanced methods utilize artificial neural network architectures such as the support vector machine which have achieved break even values close to 0. However, in the medical domain, 100 categories are seldom adequate to describe the context of a text. In case of the MEDLINE database, the National Library of Medicine has developed a highly standardized vocabulary, the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) (Lowe & Barnett, 1994). They consist of more than 35,000 categories that are hierarchi- cally organized and constitute the basis for searching the database. To guarantee satisfactory search results of constant quality, reproducible labels are an important prerequisite. However, the cost of human indexing of the biomedical literature is high: according to Humphrey (1992) it takes one year to train an expert the task of document labelling. Funk, Reid, and McGoogan (1983) have reported a mean agreement in index terms ranging from 74 percent down to as low as 33 percent for different experts. Because the improvement of index consistency is such demanding, assistance systems are considered to be a substantial benefit. Recently, Aronson, Bodenreider, Chang, Humphrey, Mork, Nelson, Rindflesh, and Wilbur (2000) have presented a highly tuned and sophisticated system which yields very promising results. Additionally to the bag of words model their system utilizes a semantic network describing a rich ontology of biomedical knowledge (Kashyap, 2003). Unfortunately, the high complexity of the MeSH terms makes it hard to incorporate a MeSH-based categorization into a user interface. When navigating the results of a hierarchically ordered answer set it can be a time-consuming and frustrating process: Items which are hidden deep within the hierarchy can often only be obtained by descending a tree with numerous mouse-clicks. Since screen space is a limited resource only a small area of context is visible and requires internal “recalibration” each time a new branch is selected.

PXE is caused by changes in the genetic material safe 100mg female viagra women's health kate beckinsale, called mutations generic female viagra 50 mg amex women's health issues in politics, that are inherited in either a dominant or recessive mode. A person with the recessive form of the disease (which is most common) must possess two copies of the PXE to be affected, and, therefore, must have received one from each parent. In the domi- nant form, one copy of the abnormal gene is sufficient to cause the disease. In some cases, a person with the dom- inant form inherits the abnormal gene from a parent with PXE. More commonly, the mutation arises as a sponta- neous change in the genetic material of the affected per- son. These cases are called “sporadic” and do not affect parents or siblings, although each child of a person with sporadic PXE has a 50% risk to inherit the condition. Both males and females can develop PXE, although the skin findings seem to be somewhat more common in females. The recessive, dominant, and spo- radic forms of PXE all appear to be caused by different mutations or deletions in a single gene called ABCC6 (also known as MRP6), located on chromosome 16. Although the responsible gene has been identified, how it causes PXE is still unknown. Genetic researchers have since identified mutations in a number of persons with PXE, most of whom have been found to have the recessive type. Affected individu- als in these families had mutations in both copies of the gene and parents, who are obligate carriers, had a muta- tion in only one copy. Contrary to the usual lack of symp- toms in carriers of recessive genes, some carriers of recessive PXE have been found to have cardiovascular symptoms typical of PXE. Although the recessive type is the most common, there are also familial and sporadic cases that have been found to be caused by dominant mutations in the ABCC6 gene. PXE is rare and occurs in about one in every 160,000 people in the general population. It is likely, though, that PXE is underdiagnosed because of the presence of mild symptoms in some affected persons and the lack of awareness of the condition among primary care physicians. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Quest Human Mutations International Mitochondrial Disease Network. A phenomenon of Raynaud disease occurs when blood flow is temorarily interrupted, causing extremities to become pale due to poor blood circulation. Thus, unless a patient assumes a regular eating pattern, repeated and periodic liberation of phytanic acid stores results in greater tissue damage and symptom development. For these same reasons, intentional weight loss though calorie- restricted diets or vigorous exercise is discouraged. Plasmapheresis is a procedure by which determined amounts of plasma (the fluid component of blood that contains phytanic acid) is removed from the blood and replaced with fluids or plasma that do not con- tain phytanic acid. Regular utilization of this technique allows people who fail to follow a restricted diet to main- tain lower phytanic acid levels and experience less tissue Renal failure (kidney failure) is caused primarily by damage and symptoms. Hypertension is the second major cause, after dia- larly by a multidisciplinary team of health care providers, betes, of end stage renal disease (ESRD) and is responsi- including a pediatrician, neurologist, ophthalmologist, ble for 25–30% of all reported cases. In addition, many cardiologist, medical geneticist specializing in metabolic people with diabetes also have hypertension, thus high disease, nutritionist, and physical/occupational therapist. People with Refsum disease, or those who are carriers of the abnormal gene or who have an relative with the dis- order, can be referred for to assist in About 398,000 people were diagnosed with end- making reproductive decisions. That same year, approximately 63,000 people with ESRD passed The prognosis of Refsum disease varies dramati- away. The disorder is slowly progressive and, if left long time and may have had kidney disease (nephropa- untreated, severe symptoms will develop with consider- thy) for as many as 20 years or more prior to experienc- ably shortened life expectancy. Unfortunately, treatment cannot undo exist- to kidney failure have a genetic element. Animal studies have been done to find genetic linkages to hypertension and kidney “Peroxisomal Disorders. This is a gene that plays a role in sodium retention role of therapeutic apheresis in its management. In another study, researchers studied an Israeli fam- “Entry 266500: Refsum Disease. They Oren Traub, MD, PhD also hypothesized that the gene encoding atrial natriutetic —An abnormally small head.

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It seems unlikely that buy female viagra 50mg lowest price menstruation occurs when, in the presence of genetic predisposition and without reducing headache triggers order female viagra 50mg without prescription menstruation 2 days only, the effect of acupuncture can be very long-lasting. However, it is possible that a course of acupuncture that effectively controls headaches for the duration of the treatment may also reduce central sensitization and result in a sustained reduction of headaches after the course of acupuncture is completed. In conclusion, despite the lack of definitive proof of its efficacy in headaches, acupuncture has a large supporting body of scientific research and a significant potential to help some patients with headaches. Issues of cost, convenience and patient preferences should be taken into account when deciding on this treatment. Physical approaches Regular and frequent aerobic exercise as a treatment for headaches is impossible to study in a double-blind trial and would require a very large comparative trial to establish its efficacy. However, there is little doubt that it offers effective relief for many stress- provoked conditions, including headaches. Regular aerobic exercise may be effective for prevention of migraine headaches through several possible mechanisms. Exercise may not only relieve tension induced by stress, but it has been shown to improve blood circulation in the brain and may result in the release of endorphins. Many migraine patients have neck muscle spasm, which is secondary to the head pain, and can precede or even trigger an attack of migraine. Strengthening isometric neck exercises are highly effective for patients with migraines. These exercises take very little time, but should be performed many times throughout the day if they are to be effective. As long as they are safe and affordable, patients should not be discouraged from trying them. Potential benefits of chiropractic manipulation should be weighed against the possible complications. While millions of chiropractic treatments are performed yearly with an excellent safety record, which is better than that of most prescription drugs, more than 100 cases of serious complications of chiropractic have been reported. It can be safely assumed that a fairly large number of similar complications go unreported. Because there is no proof that this treatment works, and in view of the potential for very serious complications, it seems prudent to discourage headache patients from undergoing chiropractic treatment. Patients who insist on having this treatment should be advised to avoid having high-velocity manipulations, which are most likely to cause complications. Vitamins and minerals Riboflavin or vitamin B2 is involved in mitochondrial energy generation. Mitochondrial dysfunction is suspected to play a role in some patients with migraines. A double-blind 14 study showed that riboflavin was effective for the prevention of migraine headaches. The maximum effect was achieved after 3 months of daily intake of 400 mg of riboflavin. The study involved only 55 patients, but the treatment is benign and potentially effective, which makes riboflavin a good candidate for further extensive trials. Magnesium is a vital element, which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of migraines. Many studies have found low magnesium levels in the serum and tissues of 15–20 migraine patients. Potential mechanisms by which magnesium can lower the threshold for migraines include such proven effects of lowered magnesium levels as vasoconstriction, reduced affinity of serotonin receptors and an easier activation of N- methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Stress has been shown to result in magnesium depletion, which suggests a possible physiological explanation for the role of stress in triggering migraine headaches. Other potential causes of magnesium deficiency are genetic factors, gastrointestinal disorders (e. An intravenous infusion of 1 g of magnesium sulfate was given to 40 consecutive 20 patients with an acute migraine.

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The anemia may require treatment with steroids buy generic female viagra 100 mg on line women's health issues and their relationship to periodontitis, sometimes called congenital aplastic anemia buy generic female viagra 50mg line womens health zeeland michigan. TPT may cause a person with Aase syndrome to Fontanelle—One of several “soft spots” on the have difficulty grasping and manipulating objects with skull where the developing bones of the skull have their hands. Narrow and sloping shoulders are caused by radius, the outer, shorter bone of the forearm. Slow growth in children with Aase syndrome may be partly related to their anemia, but is more likely to be genetically predetermined due to the syndrome. Ventricular septal defect (VSD), a hole between the bot- Several other physical abnormalities have been tom two chambers of the heart, is the cardiac defect described in individuals with Aase syndrome, including reported most often, and several cases of cleft lip and narrow shoulders, hypoplastic radius (underdevelopment palate have occurred as well. Diagnosis The specific cause of Aase syndrome is not known, but recurrence of the condition in siblings implies an abnor- The diagnosis of Aase syndrome is made when an mal gene is responsible. Children with another more common congen- ital anemia syndrome, Blackfan–Diamond syndrome Genetic profile (BDS), sometimes have abnormalities of their thumbs. The available evidence suggests Aase syndrome is Since the syndromes have overlapping symptoms, there inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion meaning that is some question about whether Aase syndrome and BDS an affected person has two copies of an abnormal gene. One copy of the normal gene is sufficient Treatment and management for the parent to be unaffected. If both parents are carri- ers of a gene for the same autosomal recessive condition, Anemia associated with Aase syndrome is often there is a one in four chance in each pregnancy that they helped by the use of a steroid medication. For serious will both pass on the abnormal gene and have an affected anemia that does not respond to medications, blood trans- child. Autosomal recessive inheritance is suspected for Aase Management of problems related to the skeletal abnor- syndrome based on the pattern seen in the families that malities should be treated by orthopedic surgery as well have been described. Heart defects and requires that only siblings are affected by the condition cleft lip and palate are nearly always correctable, but both (parents are unaffected gene carriers), and the disorder require surgery and long–term follow up. As of 2000, an abnor- uation and counseling should be offered to any individual 4 GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF GENETIC DISORDERS or couple whose child is suspected of having Aase problems, along with anemia and prolonged bleeding in syndrome. Prognosis Description While major medical procedures such as blood An unusual sign first described in ABL is the pres- transfusions and corrective surgeries might be needed for ence of star-shaped red blood cells, which were dubbed a child with Aase syndrome, the long–term prognosis “acanthocytes” (literally, thorny cells). ABL first develop chronic digestive problems, and then progress to neurological, muscular, skeletal, and ocular Resources disease. Treatments include restricting fat intake in the Aicardi Syndrome Awareness and Support Group. When MTP is nonfunctional or missing, then betalipoproteins will also be decreased or absent. The MTP gene has been Aase-Smith syndrome see Aase syndrome localized to chromosome 4. This means that both copies of the MTP gene are abnormal in a person affected with the disorder. Each parent of an affected child carries the abnormal MTP gene but also has a normally functioning gene of that pair. Enough functional MTP is produced by the nor- IAbetalipoproteinemia mal gene so that the parent is unaffected (carrier). When both parents are carriers of the same recessive gene, there Definition is a one in four chance in each pregnancy that they will Abetalipoproteinemia (ABL) is a rare inherited dis- have an affected child. The result is absence of betalipoproteins in the Demographics blood, abnormally shaped red blood cells, and deficien- cies of vitamins A, E, and K. Symptoms include intes- ABL is rare, and the true incidence of the disorder is tinal, neurological, muscular, skeletal, and ocular unknown. Prior to the description of ABL in 1950, it is GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF GENETIC DISORDERS 5 Signs and symptoms KEY TERMS Too much fat left unabsorbed in the intestine results in the symptoms that are often noticed first in ABL, Acanthocytosis—The presence of acanthocytes in such as chronic diarrhea, loss of appetite, vomiting, and the blood. Acanthocytes are red blood cells that slow weight gain and growth due to reduced uptake of have the appearance of thorns on their outer sur- nutrients. Various lipids, such as cholesterol and its compo- Ataxia—A deficiency of muscular coordination, nents, are important in the development and normal func- especially when voluntary movements are tioning of nerve and muscle cells. MTP is necessary for the include ataxia (poor muscle coordination), loss of deep production of chylomicrons. Clubfoot—Abnormal permanent bending of the Muscular atrophy, the weakening and loss of muscle ankle and foot. Weakened heart muscle (cardiomy- Lipoprotein—A lipid and protein chemically opathy) may occur, and several severe cases have been bound together, which aids in transfer of the lipid reported that resulted in early death. Loss of clear Low density lipoproteins (LDL)—A cholesterol vision, nystagmus (involuntary movement of the eyes), carrying substance that can remain in the blood and eventual paralysis of the muscles that control the eye stream for a long period of time.

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